Materials

types-of-asphalt
ASPHALTS AND BITUMENS. Asphalt and bitumens form an inter-related group or materials that have wide application in construction engineering. You'll know different types of Asphalt here.The term asphalt is used somewhat differently in different countries. Thus in the USA, by Asphalt it is understood a solid or semisolid product in...
preservation-of-timber
Deterioration and Preservation of Timber and Wood. In this article, you'll know different methods of preservation of timber and wood.Timber is, after all, an organic material and may deteriorate and decay with the passage of time.The deterioration becomes rapid in the presence of certain conditions.Thus in moist conditions which allow...
seasoning-of-timber
Seasoning of Timber. By seasoning of timber, it is understood that the controlled reduction of moisture from the wood.This is necessary for reducing the unnecessary weight of timber, for effecting an increase in its strength, to improve its workability, to reduce the possibility of development of shrinkage defects and to...
defects in timber
Defects in Timber. Defects in timber may be defined as, any undesirable character -natural or artificial- that lowers its strength, durability or quality.Defects in timber are generally distinguished as natural defects and artificial defects. Natural Defects in Timber. This group includes all those defects: (from an engineering point of view) that are...
properties of wood
Properties of Wood and Timber. Color and odor, specific gravity, moisture content, grain, shrinkage and swelling, and strength are the important characters which determine the properties of wood and timber.Most trees are characterized by a typical color and odor.Thus, dark brown color is typical in walnuts, golden yellow is characteristic...
mixing concrete
Mixing Concrete. The main object of mixing concrete (cement, sand, coarse aggregates and water) is to obtain a uniform and easily workable concrete paste.Properly calculated quantities of the concrete ingredients are thoroughly mixed to obtain concrete of desired quality.This mixing is done manually on water-tight platforms with the help of shovels.For...
grading of aggregates
Grading of Aggregates. Grading of aggregates is determining the average grain size of the aggregates before they are used in construction.This is applied to both coarse and fine aggregates. The aggregate sample is sieved through a set of sieves and weights retained on each sieve in percentage terms are summed...
soundness-of-cement
Soundness of Cement. Soundness of cement is the ability of a hardened paste to retain its volume after setting. A cement is said to be unsound (i.e., having lack of soundness) if it is subjected to delayed destructive expansion.Unsoundness of cement is due to presence of excessive amount of hard-burned...

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